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By Edward L. Bernays

A seminal paintings on how public opinion is created and formed, Edward Bernays’s 1923 vintage Crystallizing Public Opinion set down the rules that organisations and executive have used to steer public attitudes over the last century.

A primer at the then new career of "public relatives counsel," Crystallizing elucidates the "instruments and techniques" that PR execs use to mould public opinion on behalf in their client's pursuits. through adapting the guidelines that Bernays placed forth during this e-book, governments and advertisers were in a position to "regiment the brain just like the army regiments the body."

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Vgl. Parsons, Talcott / Shiels, Edward A. (1951), S. 14; Schanz, Günther (1975), S. 190 f.. 4 Vgl. Atkinson, John W. (1964), S. 405 f.. 2 3 Wissenschaftstheoretischer Orientierungsrahmen des Modellbildungsprozesses 25 Das Gratifikationsprinzip stellt innerhalb der Sozialwissenschaft ein elementares Leitprinzip menschlichen Verhaltens dar. Es wirkt zumindest implizit auf eine Vielzahl sozialwissenschaftlicher Ansätze, wie z. B. der Austauschtheorie der sozialen Interaktion 1 , der Anreiz-Beitrags-Theorie der Organisationsforschung,2 der Theorie der Leistungsmotivation3 sowie der Diffusions- bzw.

Die Abweichungen sind meist nur von geringer Bedeutung, da alle Modelle auf das Phasenmodell von Rogers aufbauen, das daher nun beispielhaft dargestellt werden soll. Rogers unterteilt den individuellen Adoptionsprozess in fünf idealtypische aufeinanderfolgende Phasen: x Bewusstsein: die Kenntnisnahme der Innovation und Informationsaufnahme, x Meinungsbildung: Bildung einer positiven oder negativen Einstellung gegenüber der Innovation durch Interesse, Bewertung und Versuch der Innovation, x Entscheidung: Wahl der Übernahme oder Ablehnung der Innovation, x Implementierung: Nutzung der Innovation, x Bestätigung: positive Bestätigung der getroffenen Entscheidung oder Revision aufgrund dissonanter Informationen.

Vgl. Weiber, Rolf (1994), S. 354. Vgl. Pohl, Alexander (1996). Vgl. Pohl, Alexander (1996), S. 237. 14 Das Leapfrogging-Phänomen in Theorie und Praxis Gierl analysierte in seiner ersten Studie 1995 103 Kunden eines Anbieters von Computersystemen. Hierbei unterschied er in Kunden, die die neuesten Workstations bereits gekauft haben (Adopter) und solche, die auf die Zukunftsgeneration warten (Leapfrogger). Mittels einer Diskriminanzanalyse wurde der Einfluss verschiedener Größen auf die Entscheidung Adoption/Leapfrogging geprüft.

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