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By Elisabet Engdahl (auth.)

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Notice that the question rule, in addition to abstraction over h, involves existential quantification over n. We can illustrate how the semantic part of the rule in (15) works by looking at the translation for the sentence whose structure is given in (12). Proceeding bottom-up, we get the following translation for the embedded question who Mary saw. (16) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) [NP/NP t] [VP/NP saw t] [s/NP Mary saw [NP o who] t] [0 who Mary saw t] h(NP) see' (h(NP») see' (m, h(NP») n Ap 3n[Ah(NP)[VP A p = 'see' (m, h(NP»)](n)] = Ap 3n[V p A p = 'see' (m, n)] The translation for the entire sentence can be paraphrased as John wonders for which n it is true that Mary saw n, or, equivalently, John stands in the wonder relation to the set of true propositions of the form 'Mary saw n'.

We said earlier that the presence of a link enables a dislocated constituent to count as an immediate constituent of the constituent dominating the gap. For the t». 49 RECENT APPROACHES TO UNBOUNDED DEPENDENCIES purpose of the interpretation rules, it will thus count as a daughter of the constituent dominating the gap and as contributing to the meaning of this node. We illustrate the way the interpretation rules work for a linked tree in (58). s (58) s PP ~ I '''-, in his , "pockets ,, NP \. VP ~ ", I every "- "- boy "- ""- "'-.

2. Interpretation Through Substitution In Cooper (1983, Chapter V), he proposes a phrase structure grammar for questions and relative clauses in English. In addition to the regular phrase structure rules, he adds the equivalent of a rule schema like in ( 41). (41) X ~ NP S where X E {O, R}. ) Something more is needed in order to generate well-formed WH clauses. In particular, we need to make sure there is a gap in the sentence and that this gap is correlated with the NP generated to the left of the sentence.

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