By Alexander Gerald Götz
During this paintings, coherent suggestions for time distinction of arrival estimation for frequency hopping GSM indications are brought. The concepts offer major advancements in accuracy in comparison to cutting-edge thoughts and are ultimate for hugely exact localization of GSM cell phones. the most important creative idea relies at the interpretation of a frequency hopping GSM sign as a wideband sign. hence, the appropriate bandwidth for time distinction of arrival estimation will be elevated from 2 hundred kHz for the narrowband burst sign to the entire uplink bandwidth of the corresponding GSM common. For E-GSM 900 structures, as much as 35 MHz of bandwidth should be hired. as a result, a localization accuracy within the scale of five - 10m is possible. The provided coherent options for time distinction of arrival estimation allow novel purposes with elevated accuracy requisites corresponding to hugely exact localization in seek and rescue eventualities. moreover, the coherent estimation idea can be tailored to any frequency hopping sign resource equivalent to TETRA, DECT, IEEE 802.15.4 (ZigBee) and IEEE 802.15.1 (Bluetooth) units.
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Additional info for Coherent Time Difference of Arrival Estimation Techniques for Frequency Hopping GSM Mobile Radio Signals
615 ms. Every mobile phone is allocated a speciﬁc time slot within the TDMA frame, also denoted as Time slot Number (TN). The structure is depicted in Fig. 7. 7: Structure of a TDMA frame Since the arrival time of a sent data burst also depends on the distance between the mobile station and the base transceiver station, the correct timing of the signals relative to the TDMA frame has to be ensured by a special mechanism. This is accomplished by the Timing Advance (TA) value which describes the shift in time of signal transmission to meet the required timing conditions.
7) For two-dimensional localization according to the time diﬀerence of arrival principle, a minimum of three receiving stations is required in order to obtain a minimum of two independent time diﬀerence of arrival measurements. For localization in threedimensional space, at least four receiving stations are necessary. The presented concept can naturally be extended to an arbitrary number of receiving stations. Depending on the measurement model, diﬀerent approaches for solving the resulting equation system can be applied.
28 3 GSM Signal Characteristics and Modeling The entries in the mobile allocation are numbered by the Mobile Allocation Index (MAI). The entry of the mobile allocation table at which the hopping sequence begins is called the Mobile Allocation Index Oﬀset (MAIO). The applied hopping scheme is characterized by the Hopping Sequence Number (HSN) where HSN = 0 is cyclic hopping and 1 ≤ HSN ≤ 63 are pseudo-random schemes. Usually, all mobile stations within a GSM cell use the same hopping sequence number and are assigned diﬀerent values for the mobile allocation index oﬀset.