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By Dr C. A. Smith, Dr E. J. Wood (auth.)

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It is also possible to form a bilayer vesicle (c). where there is now water both inside and outside. (d) A large bilayer vesicle forms the basis of a cell membrane. separating two watery regions. inside and outside. / Basic principles 23 / Exercise 7 molecular layer on the surface, with the hydrophilic parts of the molecule in the water and the hydrophobic chains sticking out of it (Fig. 16a), If this arrangement is disturbed, by stirring for example, micelles form, loose 'compartments' with the hydrophobic parts of the molecules pointing towards the inside and the hydrophilic parts sticking outwards, interacting with water molecules (Fig.

Since the elements of water are lost in the condensation, the amino acids are more correctly called residues. Twenty different amino acids are found in proteins, although subsequent to their incorporation they may be subjected to a variety of chemical modifications, for example, phosphorylation, hydroxylation, methylation, acylation or glycosylation. 1 gives the structures and overall description of the 'standard' amino acids of proteins specified by the genetic code. These amino acids differ only in the nature of their 'R-groups' or side chains.

Triacylglycerol hydrolysis D. protoplasmic streaming E. fermentation 11. Which of the following are involved in the interaction and recognition of one molecule by another? A. ionic forces B. van der Waals' attractions C. carbon-earbon bond formation D. hydrogen bonds E. hydrophobic interactions 12. When two complementary DNA molecules join to form a double helix, the types of bond involved are: A. peptide bonds B. hydrogen bonds C. salt linkages D. hydrophobic interactions E. sugar-phosphate links SHORT-ANSWER QUESTIONS 13.

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