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By Federal Research Division

Bahrain's courting with Qatar is long-standing. After the Al Khalifa conquered Bahrain in 1783 from their base in Qatar, Bahrain turned the Al Khalifa seat. for that reason, tribal parts last in Qatar sought to claim their autonomy from the Al Khalifa. hence, within the early 19th century, Qatar used to be the scene of numerous conflicts concerning the Al Khalifa and their competitors, the Al Thani, in addition to a variety of outsiders, together with Iranians, Omanis, Wahhabis, and Ottomans. while the British East India corporation in 1820 signed the final Treaty of Peace with the shaykhs of the world designed to finish piracy, the treaty thought of Qatar a dependency of Bahrain.

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They believe the Prophet Muhammad designated Ali to be his successor as Imam (when uppercase, Imam refers to the Shia descendant of the House of Ali), exercising both spiritual and temporal leadership. Only those who have walayat (spiritual guidance) are free from error and sin and have been chosen by God through the Prophet. Each Imam in turn designated his successor—through twelve Imams—each holding the same powers. The imamate began with Ali, who is also accepted by Sunni Muslims as the fourth of the “rightly guided caliphs” to succeed the Prophet.

A major provision of these treaties was the recognition of sovereignty. The British were concerned that rulers of the weaker gulf families would yield some of their territory under pressure from more powerful groups, such as the Al Saud or the Ottomans. Accordingly, the treaties signed between 1820 and 1916 recognized the sovereignty of these rulers within certain borders and specified that these borders could not be changed without British consent. Such arrangements helped to put tribal alliances into more concrete terms of landownership.

Others of his sayings, recalled by those who had known him, became the hadith (see Glossary). The precedent of Muhammad's deeds is called the sunna. Together they form a comprehensive guide to the spiritual, ethical, and social life of an orthodox Sunni Muslim. The major duties of Muslims are found in the five pillars of Islam, which set forth the acts necessary to demonstrate and reinforce the faith. These are the recitation of the shahada (“There is no god but God [Allah], and Muhammad is his prophet"), daily prayer (sala t), almsgiving (zakat), fasting (sawm), and pilgrimage (hajj).

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