By Kenneth M. Setton, Norman P. Zacour, Harry W. Hazard
The six volumes of A historical past of the Crusades will stand because the definitive heritage of the Crusades, spanning 5 centuries, encompassing Jewish, Moslem, and Christian views, and containing a wealth of data and research of the historical past, politics, economics, and tradition of the medieval international
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Extra resources for A History of the Crusades, Volume V: The Impact of the Crusader States on the Near East
He resettled tribes such as the Qajar, Afshar, and Kurds to the frontiers of the empire and initiated a more assertive on t he per iphery of n i n et een t h- cen t u ry ir a n 21 The Bakhtiyari Tribal Confederacy h a f t l a ng ch a h a r l a ng Duraki Tayafas Mahmud Salih Tayafa Zarasvand Tayafa Kiyanursi Tayafa Asivand Tayafa Muku’i Tayafa Mawri Tayafa Zulqi Tayafa Qand ‘Ali Tayafa Baba Ahmadi Tayafa Arab Tayafa Astaraki Tayafa Mamivand Tayafa Dinaruni Tayafas Awrak Tayafa Babadi Tayafas ‘Awli Anvar Tayafa ‘Akkasha Tayafa Raki Tayafa Kalla Tayafa Malmali Tayafa Bakhtiyarvand Tayafas Bakhtiyarvand Tayafa ‘Awli Jamali Tayafa Janiki Sardsir Tayafa Tribes and subtribes of the Bakhtiyari tribal federation, as listed in Tarikh-i Bakhtiyari.
87 Later in the nineteenth century the Bakhtiyari fell under the authority of three provincial governments, Isfahan, Luristan, and Khuzistan (Arabistan). ”89 From contemporary sources, a picture of tribal autonomy in the mountains emerges. Regarding the allegiance of the Bakhtiyari to the Qajars, John Malcolm, the minister plenipotentiary from British India to the Court of Fath ‘Ali Shah (r. 1797–1834), wrote: 38 on t he per iphery of n i n et een t h- cen t u ry ir a n The Bukhteearee, and several other tribes, can hardly be said to have ever entirely submitted to the Kings of Persia.
According to the medieval geographer Ibn Hawqal, “Lur was a prosperous country with a mountain climate attached to the provinces of Khuzistsan and Jabal . . ”14 This view was later confirmed by al-Yaqut’s geographical dictionary, written in the Mongol period. 15 In Sharafnama-yi Tarikh-i Mufassal-i Kurdistan, Amir Sharaf Khan Bidlisi counts the Bakhtiyari as among the 400 Kurdish clans that migrated from Syria (bilad al-sham) to Jabal and Khuzistan around the beginning of the twelfth century, coming to be known as Lur-i Buzurg.