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By Frajzyngier, Zygmunt; Johnston, Eric

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Some morphemes that have polar tone are: the end-of-event marker za, the point-of-view of subject marker ka, the dependent habitual marker ra, all occurring in verb-phrase-final position. The third person object suffix -« has also polar tone. The infinitive marker kd has also polar tone: kd ddm 'to marry' and kd ddm 'penetrate, ache, pain' and 'wear trousers, shoes'. The inherent tone of a morpheme can also undergo a change to code a number of functions. Thus tones of subject pronouns that are inherently low become high to code imperative and subjunctive moods.

First an illustration of vowel deletion: (60) si tatag 3PL run 3PL 'they escaped' -» [i si tstarj ] häza to bitsi dog GEN Bitsi 'Bitsi's dog' -* [has to bici] -> [iststarj ] 22 Phonology to bitsi cow GEN Bitsi 'Bitsi 's cow' -» [{59 t9 bitsi] If the final vowel of a word is a derivational morpheme, as is the case with fci 'meat', most probably derived from fca 'cow', such a vowel is not deleted in contexts in which lexical vowels are always deleted: (61) foi to gdldärn-* meat GEN pig 'pork' [fei to gsldam] Vowel deletion is a means of coding phrasal boundary.

When the final vowel is deleted in phraseinternal position, the voiced consonant assimilates to the following voiceless consonant: (7) häza td bitsl dog GEN Bitsi 'adogofBitsi' -» häz to bici -» [has ts bici] The interrogative marker for human participants has the form va. In phrase-internal position, the vowel of this marker is deleted. 4 Rhotacization Glottalized stops may be rhotacized in syllable-final position. 5 Palatalization Alveolar continuants and affricates s, z, is, and dz are palatalized before and after front high vowel i, producing j, z, c, andy: (12) zln bitsi —* —*· zin bici 'return' 'proper name for a first born child' The voiced continuant z is palatalized in the cluster nz when followed by stative suffix -yi: (13) md nz-yi märßak REL sit-STAT Marbak 'he remained at Marbak' [mo -] The palatal glide is a barrier to palatalization.

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