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Справочник «История Ближнего Востока» предлагает свежий взгляд на многогранную и многослойную историю этого региона, к которому отнесены Иран, Турция, Израиль и Арабский мир.
В его составе – 26 очерков международного коллектива ученых, акцентированных, в основном, на новом и новейшем периоде. В очерках уделено внимание религиозной, социальной, культурной, экономической, политической и военной истории. Затронуты также текущие проблемы, такие как - нефтяной вопрос , урбанизация, роль женщин и права человека.Образцы сканов:
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Additional info for A Companion to the History of the Middle East
49); the earliest securely datable text to use the word Muslims is a letter of 141/758 (Hinds, ‘Letter from the Governor of Egypt’, line 36 of the translation and the note thereto). 15 It should be noted that the understanding of the term ‘Arabia’ has varied considerably from time to time. For us today it tends to indicate the Arabian peninsula, the modern state of Saudi Arabia and its neighbours. In the period before the rise of Islam it often referred to a region or province attached to Palestine.
He was the first of a series of caliphs who were all members of the same family, the Umayyads (661–750), who ruled from Syria. In the traditional accounts the Umayyads, with few exceptions, were worldly rulers who cared little for Islam. Islamic ideals were maintained mainly by the pious who transmitted the text of the Qur a¯n and the details of the Prophet’s Sunna but were generally excluded from positions of power or influence and often persecuted by the rulers. From time to time opposition to the Umayyads flared up and was usually expressed in religious terms.
The traditional lives of the Prophet that portray the Meccans as heavily involved in trade, have theorized that Mecca was on an international trade route and that religious and other ideas were carried along with trade goods. 30 More academic energy has been expended on the issue of the nature and sources of the ideas. Since the German Jewish scholar Abraham Geiger published in 1832 his book on what he saw as Muhammad’s borrowings from Judaism there have been _ ideas, practices and institutions are adaptations and many studies arguing that Muslim reworkings of Jewish or Christian originals.