Download 9-11: Was There an Alternative? (Open Media Book) by Noam Chomsky PDF

By Noam Chomsky

In Sep 11, released in November 2001 and arguably the one so much influential put up September 11 ebook, across the world popular philosopher Noam Chomsky bridged the knowledge hole around the globe alternate middle assaults, slicing in the course of the tangle of political opportunism, expedient patriotism, and normal conformity that choked off American discourse within the months instantly following. Chomsky put the assaults in context, marshaling his deep and nuanced wisdom of yankee overseas coverage to track the background of yankee political aggression--in the center East and all through Latin the United States in addition to in Indonesia, in Afghanistan, in India and Pakistan--at an identical time caution opposed to America’s expanding reliance on army rhetoric and violence in its reaction to the assaults, and making the serious aspect that the mainstream media and public intellectuals have been failing to make: any escalation of violence as a reaction to violence will necessarily result in additional, and bloodier, assaults on innocents in the US and all over the world. This re-creation of 11th of September, released at the 10th anniversary of the assaults and that includes a brand new preface via Chomsky, reminds us that this present day, simply up to ten years in the past, info and readability stay our Most worthy instruments within the fight to avoid destiny violence opposed to the blameless, either at domestic and overseas.

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Extra info for 9-11: Was There an Alternative? (Open Media Book)

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For an excellent review of both these literatures designed for the political scientist, see Deborah Welch Larson, Origins of Containment: A Psychological Explanation (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1985), pp. 24–65. See for instance Khong, Analogies at War, passim. 23 US foreign policy and the Iran hostage crisis effort to sketch out the major findings which have some relevance to the current enterprise is in order before we proceed to analyse the Iranian case. 7 Although this body of literature – the vast majority of it generated only over the past twenty years – is now too vast to be summarized in its entirety, a number of key findings stick out by virtue of their replication by a number of researchers.

24 A fifth finding is that individuals often draw analogies between things or events which exhibit only a superficial surface similarity. As Clement and Gentner succinctly put it, ‘suppose we know three facts: It rains in San Francisco, There is a mime troop in San Francisco and It rains in Urbana. ’25 Unfortunately, in the complex world of foreign policy decision-making things are rarely so clear cut. If Kosovo looks sufficiently like Vietnam in terms of its terrain or the kind of military commitment necessary to win the conflict, then it is easy to conclude that escalated American involvement in the former Yugoslavia would meet with the same result encountered in Southeast Asia.

Pp. 217–18. VanLehn, ‘Problem Solving and Cognitive Skill Acquisition’, pp. 549–50. For some examples, see the works cited in footnote 75. 43 While the choice of the Munich or the Vietnam analogy, for instance, makes a key difference to the policy-makers involved and to ordinary members of the American public, whether the radiation problem is solved using a military or engineering analogy makes little difference to the participants in this sort of test. Put another way, the subjects are not systematically ‘biased’ one way or another by any predisposing element, while we could plausibly assume that policymakers manifestly are.

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